عنوان مقاله [English]
Principal growth and development of cities is facilitating the sustainability process. To accomplish this Policy-making and stakeholders are the most important component. For this purpose the present study with the aim of identifying and analyzing key factors Influencing in policy- making for environmental (physical) development of Urmia, Trying that by applying policies and changing the power of actors, direct the city development process in the right direction. The purpose of this study is practical and data collection has been descriptive-analytical. In this research the Holdern model has been used to investigate the physical development of the city of Urmia, and by using the MicMac software, effective indicators have been identified for the development of the city, and then key actors have been analyzed In the Mactor software, and action has been taken to determine the degree of competitiveness, convergence and agreement between key actors. The results of the research based on Holdern model calculations showed that about % -25.8 of the growth was in the city of Urmia between 1355 and 1395 due to the Spiral horizontal growth of the city and about 74.2 percent of the rest of the city's development was due to city population growth this has led to an increase in population density and a decline in urban land use. 31 factors were used to analyze and evaluate the policy- making for environmental (physical) development of Urmia. Using MicMac software, eight key drivers in policy- making have been identified and 5 key players to advance these policies. Those have had urban managers and urban firms in the highest order of competitiveness, competence, influence. Eventually most of the actors agreed on the physical development bug on the likelihood of the city becoming a land exchange for housing and housing, and a focused policy.
Key words: Urban Land Policy, environmental (physical) development of the City, Urmia City, MACTOR
Physical development is sustained when during the time, the city is environmentally habitable, and life is economically sustainable and be socially connected and uplifting. To this end, they should be precisely identified for proper policy making in the field of urban physical development, key city resources and areas that can be effective in this regard. The fundamental issue is that the lack of proper understanding of the forces contributing to the growth and expansion of the city cannot prevent its horizontal growth, so the most important step in achieving sustainable urban development is to identify key forces and factors that lead to the physical and urban growth of the city and, over time, lead to its sustainability.
The present study is a descriptive-analytical method and in terms of nature, it is also part of applied research. The method of data collection is library and survey (questionnaire). In terms of the nature of the data, it is also a qualitative research. The statistical population in this study is 20 experts and faculty members of the Department of Geography of Urmia University. In this study, a Holdern model was used to illuminate the type of growth in Urmia and after collecting the indices and variables, the interaction matrix was formed in two stages, So that the indexes are in rows and columns. Mic Mac and Mactor software were used to convert indexes and variables.
The result of the Holdern model calculations, it indicated that In the years 1355-1395 regardless of its quantity one can imagine the phenomenon of irregular horizontal dispersion for the city of Urmia, In order to identify the key factors influencing the policy- making for environmental (physical) development of Urmia City were extracted early Factors Influencing the Future of Physical Development of Urmia City Using the Delphi Method. And it was identified by examining the questionnaires received from the experts overall 31 factors in 4 different domains as the primary variables. that is according to experts in the MicMac software environment 8 Indicators as Key Proponents of policy- making for environmental (physical) development of Urmia City. and according to the key factors, five key players (Citizens (Buyers - Landowners), Departments (Ministry of Interior, Roads and Urban Development, Natural Resources, Agricultural Jihad, Land Management, Endowments, Documentation and Real Estate, Revolutionary Institutions, Military Institutions), Managers and Local Organizations (Council And municipalities), agencies, cooperatives and the private sector) in the realization of city development policies were identified using the Mactor model. Investigations in the field of actors have shown the most direct and indirect effects by urban managers (council and municipality). Who played the most roles for inter-departmental coordination in line with the physical development of Urmia and firms were next.
This study evaluates the actors' views on the key factors influencing the policy- making for environmental (physical) development of Urmia. That was according to the assessments; Lack of strength of local government institutions, subordinate and centralized policy rather than expert policy, weak coordination among urban management agencies, turning the city into a place for landowners and urban housing, lack of transparency of land and urban housing policies. Turning the city into a field for stockholders can be subject to the lack of transparency of land policies and urban housing. Finally it must be said Municipalities and councils, as the most active actors in the physical development process of the city, need to establish a close and coordinated process with other institutions, including the administrative sector to make policies and laws clearer. Also, due to the close relationship between the firms and the citizens, it is necessary to intervene in this area, especially the municipal administration, especially the municipalities and weaken this link, which is one of the factors behind the city's inappropriate development Finally, given the limited municipal activities in the field of urban management despite the different actors, it is necessary to pay more attention to this management body as coordinator of other urban sectors and highlight its role.